National Democratic Alliance 1
Major work, Initiatives & Implications
Despite a booming national economy, the Congress polled poorly in the 1996 general election, falling from 260 seats in the Lok Sabha to only 140.
A hastily contrived coalition, the United Front (UF), under Janta Dal politician H.D. Deve Gowda, soon was able to seat a government. But the United Front (UF) relied on the support of the Congress from the outside, in exchange for continuing certain Congress policies. The coalition still proved unstable, and Gowda was replaced as prime minister in April 1997 by Inder Kumar Gujral, also of the Janta Dal. However, an interim report on Rajiv Gandhi’s assassination released in November stated that the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) party, a member of the UF, shared responsibility in Gandhi’s death. The Congress removed its support, and after the collapse of the UF, new elections were slated for March 1998.
(The claims against the DMK were never substantiated.)
Much to the chagrin of the Congress, The Bharatiya Janta Party (BJP) polled well in the March elections, increasing its membership in the Lok Sabha from 160 seats to 179. The Congress, now led by Sonia Gandhi, Increased their representation slightly, garnering an additional five seats. No single party seemed to be in a position to form a government (Janata Dal had fallen to a mere six seats), and it was only after much politicking that the BJP was able to form a new governing coalition, again under Vajpayee.
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The BJP coalition, called the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), crumbled in April 1999 and operated as a caretaker
government until elections that fall. the BJP again had a good outing, outpolling all other parties and raising its representation in the Lok Sabha to 182 seats. The Congress representation in the lower house eroded even further, to 112 seats.
India had conducted its first nuclear weapons test in 1974, but, Its program for developing and fielding such weapons had been converted. Under the BJP, India publicly and proudly declared itself a member of those states possessing nuclear weapons, and In May 1998 within months of the BJP coming to power—India conducted a series of five nuclear weapons tests. This apparently was interpreted as saber-rattling by Pakistan, which responded by detonating its own nuclear device. The International community harshly condemned both sides and urged the two new nuclear powers to begin a dialogue, particularly on the unresolved question of Kashmir.
Despite several tentative steps toward rapprochement, armed conflict broke out between India and Pakistan in the high mountains of the Kargil region of Jammu and Kashmir in May 1999. Eventually, intense international pressure induced the Pakistani government to withdraw its troops to Its side of the line of control.
Bharatiya Janta Party (BJP) had a poor showing in the May 2004 elections. The Congress regained some ground lost in previous general elections, raising its representation in the Lok Sabha to 145 seats; the BJP’s membership fell to 137 seats. The Congress formed a coalition known as the United Progressive Alliance (UPA). Congress leader Sonia Gandhi opted not to take the premiership, however, and instead recommended Manmohan Singh, for the post. The Congress made significant Gains in the 2009 parliamentary elections. Increasing Its seat total in the Lok Sabha to 206, conversely, the BJP’s total fell to 116. Singh formed another cabinet and was sworn in for a second term, becoming the first prime minister since Jawaharlal Nehru to do so after having served a full five-year term.
- Adhering to the canons of “Coalition Dharma” mutual trust, regular consultation, consensus building, and acceptance
or a common approach, the NDA has shown how a coalition can work unitedly to fulfill the people’s aspirations.
- A GDP growth rate of 8% became real.
- Moreover, Agriculture production surpassed all previous records.
- The NDA rule not only brought pride to the “Made in India” label but also made “Served from India” the first choice or global companies. This service sector generated new employment.
- Poor and Inadequate infrastructure, which was the debilitating legacy of the previous years, was replaced by a world-class infrastructure for India, built by Indians, in India.
- After that, Internet connectivity, highway connectivity, and rural roads connectivity were among the initial, visible successes of this revolution.
- Similarly, The Vajpayee Government built more houses for the rural poor under the Indira Awaas Yojana in the last five years than the Congress.
- The NDA Government launched some of the biggest ever social development initiatives in the world. These include the Antyodaya Anna Yojana and the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.
- The coverage of the Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS), which is the world’s largest early childcare program, was greatly expanded.
- Major initiatives, such as the establishment of a separate ministry for tribal affairs, were taken to promote the cause of social justice.
NDA2(May 2014 onwards)
Cabinet, Major Work & Initiatives & Implications
In 2014, NDA came back to power by winning a whopping majority of 337 seats. Out of this Bharatiya Janta Party (BJP) alone won 280 seats. The major political parties in NDA2 with their Lok Sabha are BJP (282), Shiv Sena (18), Telugu Desam Party (16), Lok Jan Shakti Party (6), Shiromani Akali Dal (4).
Cabinet: As on December 2014
|Narendra Modi||Prime Minister, Minister for Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions, Department of Atomic Energy, Department of Space|
|Rajnath Singh||Home Affairs|
|Susma Swaraj||External Affairs, Overseas Indian Affairs|
|Arun Jaitley||Finance, Corporate Affairs, Information & Broadcasting|
|Venkaiah Naidu||Urban Development, Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation, Parliamentary Affairs|
|Nitin Gadkari||Road Transport and Highways, Shipping|
|D.V. Sadunanda Gowde||Law and Justice|
|Uma Bharti||Water Resources and Ganga Rejuvenation|
|Najma A. Heptulla||Minority Affairs|
|Ram Vilas Paswan||Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution|
|Kalraj Mishra||Micro, Small and medium Enterprises|
|Maneka Gandhi||Women and Child Management|
|Ananth Kumar||Chemical and Fertilizers|
|Ravi Shankar Prashad||Communications and IT|
|Jagat Prakash Nadda||Health & Family Welfare|
|Ashok Pusapti||Civil Aviation|
|Anant Geete||Heacy Industries and Public Enterprise|
|Harsimrat Kaur Bedal||Food Processing Industries|
|Narendra Singh Tomar||Mines & Steel|
|Ch. Birender Singh||Rural Development, Panchayat Raj, Drinking Water and Sanitation|
|Jual Oram||Tribal Affairs|
|Radha Mohan Singh||Agriculture|
|Thawar Chand Gehlot||Social Justice and Empowerment|
|Smriti Zubin Irani||Human Resource Development|
|Harsh Vardhan||Science and Technology, Earth Sciences|
The Major Challenges that this government will have to face are:
Revitalize State-Run Banks
- India needs to fix the piles of bad loans at the country’s state-run lenders. With stressed loans totaling $100 billion, or about 10% of all loans.
- India’s main internal security threat is from Maoists. They have acquired guns, hand grenades and guerrilla war expertise over the years. And routinely target security forces and other government officials in areas that contain the country’s richest mineral deposits.
Border Issues of Pakistan and China
- The infiltrations and ceasefire violations by the Pakistani’s have been a long-term issue. It was also a part of their manifesto to bring an end to this issue. The border issues with China also needs to be settled by setting a permanent border with it.
- India’s growth rate has seen a sharp decline in UPA2 government. One of the major challenges awaiting Modi government is to revitalize the GDP growth of India.
Major Initiatives and Achievement since it came to power are:
Scrapping the Planning Commission
- The Planning Commission based on the Nehruvian model of development that has followed By the country since 1950. The decision to scrap off the commission came after more than a half-century of its functioning and had become almost redundant in its scope. With the new system to introduce. The states will now have more flexibility in using funds for their development which has been a challenge so far.
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan
- The campaign is India’s biggest ever cleanliness drive with 3 million government employees and schools and colleges students of India participating in it. This campaign aims to accomplish the vision of ‘Clean India’ by 2 October 2019, 150th birthday of Mahatma Gandhi. And expected to cost over 62000 crores(US$10 billion).
Make In India Initiative
- Inviting global companies to India, Narendra Modi launched his campaign ‘Make in India‘. The initiative has taken to boost the economy of the country by inviting global companies to invest in the Indian market. Modi first mentioned the words ‘Make in India’ during his maiden speech as PM on Independence Day. As the NDA government has eased the foreign direct investment cap in several areas like construction, defense, and the railways, the programme gives international companies easy access to the Indian market.
Pradhan Mantri Dhan Jan Yojna
- The Jan Dhan Yojna aimed to make available formal banking to 1 crore people and provided accident insurance cover to ‘1.5 crore people’. The initiative also aims to provide bank accounts to 100 crore people in the next one year. Narendra Modi had mentioned the National Mission on Financial Inclusion titled. `Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana’ (PMJDY) in his first Independence Day speech on August 15, 2014. According to the reports, 5.29 crore bank accounts have opened. After that And 1.78 crore RuPay debit cards have issued so far under the Jan Dhan Yojna.
Neighborhood first policy
- One of the major policy initiatives taken by Modi government is to focus back on its immediate neighbors in South Asia. Even before becoming. The Prime Minister Narendra Modi hinted that his foreign policy will actively focus on improving ties with India’s immediate neighbors. Which is being termed as neighborhood first policy in the media. And he started well by inviting all heads of state/heads of government of South Asian Countries in his inauguration and on the second day at the office. He held bilateral talks with all of them individually which dubbed as a mini SAARC summit by the media. Later during a launch event at ISRO. He has asked Indian scientists to take the endeavor to develop a dedicated SAARC satellite to share the fruits of the technology. Like telemedicine, e-learning etc. With, the people across South Asia to complement the currently operating Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation Programme program in the region.
Building Brand India
- The controversial UPA-2 government which includes scams and Red-Topism has created a negative image of India. One of the challenges that Modi had to overcome was to revitalize this image of India abroad. For this improving the policy is not enough. In his foreign visits to countries Bhutan, Brazil, Nepal, Japan, USA, Myanmar, Australia, Fiji, and Nepal. Modi has made successfully attempt to establish Brand India. He has conveyed the message that. His government is ready to take every step to stop Red-Topism and instead he is ready to welcome the foreign companies with red carpet.