Jawaharlal Nehru

Jawaharlal Nehru

Again Indiagossip Comes with new post related to Indian Greatest Politicians. In our history, there are many greatest people born. Jawaharlal Nehru was the most popular name in the History of India. He is the first Prime Minister Of India. Indiagossip has full brief Article on it.

 

1st Prime Minister of India, In Office (1947 – 1964), succeeded by Gulzarilal Nanda, Born – 14th November 1889, Died May 27, 1964, Married to Kamala Nehru.

Jawaharlal Nehru (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a senior political leader of the Indian National Congress. He was a pivotal figure during the Indian independence movement. He served as the first Prime Minister of the Republic of India. Popularly referred to as Panditji (Scholar), Nehru was also a writer, scholar and amateur historian, and the patriarch of India’s most influential political family.

As the son of the wealthy Indian barrister and politician Motilal Nehru. Jawaharlal Nehru had become one of the youngest leaders of the Indian National Congress. Rising under the mentorship of Mahatma Gandhi, Nehru became a charismatic, radical leader, advocating complete independence from the British Empire. An icon for Indian youth, Nehru was also an exponent of socialism as a means to address long-standing national challenges. Serving as Congress President, A forceful and charismatic orator, Nehru was a major influence in organizing nationalist rebellions. And also spreading the popularity of the nationalist cause to India’s minorities.

Rise to national leadership

In the 1920s, Nehru was elected president of the All India Trade Unions Congress. He and Subhash Chandra Bose had become the most prominent youth leaders. And both demanded outright political independence of India.

Nehru criticised the Nehru Report prepared by his father in 1928, which called for dominion status for India within the

Jawaharlal Nehru

British Empire. Arguing that India would deliver an ultimatum to British and prepare for the mass struggle. At that time, Nehru and Bose won the hearts of many young Indians. To resolve the issue, Gandhi said that the British would be given two years to grant India dominion status. If they did not, the Congress (INC) would launch a national struggle for full, Political independence. Nehru and Bose succeeded in reducing the statutory deadline to one year.

The failure of talks with the British caused the December 1929 session in Lahore to be held in an atmosphere charged with nationalist, anti-British passions. Preparing for the declaration of independence, the AICC elected Jawaharlal as Congress President at the encouragement of Gandhi. Favoured by Gandhi for his charismatic Appeal to India’s masses, minorities, women, and youth. The move nevertheless surprised many Congressmen and political observers.

Avadi and Quit India

The Congress passed the Avadi Resolution proclaiming socialism as the model for India’s future government. Jawaharlal Nehru was re-elected the. following year, and oversaw the Congress national campaign for the 1937 elections. Largely leaving political organization work to others, Nehru traveled the length and breadth of the country, exhorting the masses on behalf of them. Congress, which would win an outright majority in the central and most of the provincial legislatures. Although he did not contest elections himself, Nehru was seen by the national media as the leader of the Congress.

At the outbreak of World War II, India was entered on the side of the British by the viceroy. Outraged at the viceroy’s arbitrary decision, all elected Congressmen resigned from their offices at the instigation of Subhash Bose and Nehru. But even as Bose would call for an outright revolt. And would proceed to seek the aid of Nazi Germany and Japan. Nehru remained sympathetic to the British cause.

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He joined Maulana Azad, Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari, and Patel in offering Congress support for the war effort. That was in turn for a commitment from the British to grant independence after the war. Nehru broke ranks with Gandhi, who had resisted in supporting a war and remained suspicious of the British. The failure of negotiations and Britain’s refusal to concede independence, outraged Indian nationalists. Gandhi and Patel called for an all-out rebellion, a demand that was opposed by Rajagopalachari and resisted by Nehru and Azad.

After intensive debates and heated discussions, the Congress leaders called for the British to Quit India. — to transfer power to Indian hands immediately or face a mass rebellion. Despite his skepticism, Nehru traveled the country to exhort India’s masses into rebellion. He arrested with the entire Congress Working Committee on August 9, 1942. And after that transported to a maximum security prison at a fort in Ahmednagar.

Here he would remain incarcerated with his colleagues until June 1945. His daughter Indira and her husband Feroze Gandhi would also imprisoned for a few months. Nehru’s first grandchild, Rajiv was born in 1944.

India’s first prime minister [ Jawaharlal Nehru ]

Nehru and his colleagues had been released as the British Cabinet Mission arrived to propose plans for the transfer of power. The Congress held a presidential election in the knowledge that its chosen leader would become India’s head of government. 11Congress state units nominated Vallabhbhai Patel, while only the Working Committee suggested Nehru. Sensing that Nehru would not accept second place to Patel. Gandhi supported Nehru and asked Patel to withdraw, which he immediately did.

Nehru’s election surprised many Congressmen and continues to be a source of controversy in modern times. Nehru headed an interim government, which impaired by outbreaks of communal violence and political disorder. And the opposition of the Muslim League led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who were demanding a separate Muslim state of Pakistan. After failed bids to form coalitions. Nehru reluctantly supported the partition of India as per a plan released by the British on June 3, 1947. He would take office as the Prime Minister of India on August 15, and delivered his inaugural address titled “A Tryst With Destiny:”

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However, this period marked by intense communal violence that swept across the Punjab region, Delhi, Bengal and other parts of India. Nehru conducted joint tours with Pakistani leaders to encourage peace and calm angry and disillusioned refugees. Fearing communal reprisals, Nehru also hesitated in supporting the annexation of Hyderabad State and clashed with Patel on the Kashmir dispute and relations with Pakistan. Nehru felt offended by Patel’s decision-making regarding the states’ integration without consulting either him or the Cabinet.

Patel asked Gandhi to relieve him of his obligation to serve. He knew that he lacked Nehru’s youth and popularity, and believed that an open political battle would hurt India. After much personal deliberation and contrary to Patel’s prediction, Gandhi on January 30, 1948, told Patel not to leave the Government. And to stay by Nehru’s side in joint leadership. A free India, according to Gandhi, desperately needed both Patel and Nehru’s joint leadership.

Gandhi assassinated on January 30, 1948. At Gandhi’s wake, Nehru and Patel embraced each other and addressed the nation together. Criticism soon arose from the media and other politicians that Patel’s home ministry had failed to protect Gandhi. Emotionally exhausted, Patel tendered a letter of resignation, offering to leave the Government despite his word to Gandhi desiring not to embarrass Nehru’s administration. Nehru sent Patel a letter dismissing any question of personal differences and his desire for Patel’s ouster.

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He reminded Patel of their thirty-year partnership in the freedom struggle, and that after Gandhi’s death, it was especially wrong for them to quarrel. Moved, Patel personally and publicly endorsed Nehru’s leadership and refuted any suggestion of discord. Despite working together, the two leaders would clash on various issues. Jawaharlal Nehru declined Patel’s counsel on sending assistance to Tibet. After its 1950 invasion of the People’s Republic of China and ejecting the Portuguese from Goa by military force.

When Nehru pressured Dr. Rajendra Prasad to decline a nomination to become the first President of India in 1950. In favor of Rajagopalachari, He thus angered the party, which felt Nehru was attempting to impose his will. Nehru sought Patel’s help in winning the party over, but Patel declined, and Prashad duly elected. When Nehru opposed the 1950 Congress presidential candidacy of Purushottam Das tendon, a conservative Hindu leader. He endorsed Jivatram kripalani and threatened to resign if Tandon was elected. Patel rejected Nehru’s views and endorsed Tandon in Gujarat, where Kripalani received not one vote despite hailing from that state himself. Patel believed Nehru had to understand that his will was not a law with the Congress. But he personally discouraged Nehru from resigning after the latter felt that the Party had no confidence in him.

Economic policies [ Jawaharlal Nehru ]

  • Creating the Planning commission of India, Nehru drew up the first Five-Year Plan in 1951, Which charted the government’s investments in industries and agriculture.
  • Increasing business and income taxes, Nehru envisaged a mixed economy in which the government would manage strategic industries. This are such as mining, electricity and heavy industries, serving the public interest and a check to private enterprise.
  • Jawaharlal Nehru pursued land redistribution and launched programmes to build irrigation canals, dams. And  he spread the use of fertilizers to increase agricultural production.
  • He also pioneered a series of community development programs aimed at spreading diverse cottage industries and increasing efficiency into rural India.
  • Nehru also launched India’s programme to harness nuclear energy.
  • His government succeeded in extending water and electricity supply, health care, roads and infrastructure to a large degree for India’s vast rural population.

Education and social reform [ Jawaharlal Nehru ]

  • His government oversaw the establishment of many institutions of higher learning. Including the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, the Indian Institutes of Technology and the Indian Institutes of Management.
  • Jawaharlal Nehru also outlined a commitment in his five-year plans to guarantee free and compulsory primary education to all of India’s children. For this purpose, Nehru oversaw the creation of mass village enrollment programmes and the construction of thousands of schools.
  • Nehru also launched initiatives such as the provision of free milk and meals to children in order to fight malnutrition.
  • Adult education centers, vocational and technical schools were also organized for adults, especially in the rural areas.
  • Under Nehru, the Indian Parliament enacted many changes to Hindu law to criminalize caste discrimination. And increase the legal rights and social freedoms of women.
  • A system of reservations in government services and educational institutions created to eradicate the social inequalities and disadvantages faced by peoples of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.

National Security and Foreign Policy

  • Although having promised in 1948 to hold a plebiscite in Kashmir under the auspices of the U.N. Jawaharlal Nehru grew increasingly wary of the U.N. and declined to hold a plebiscite in 1953. He ordered the arrest of the Kashmiri politician Sheikh Abdullah. Whom he had previously supported but now suspected of harboring separatist ambitions; Bakshi Ghularn Mohammad replaced him.
  • On the international scene, Nehru was a champion of pacifism and a strong supporter of the United Nations.
  • He pioneered the policy of nonalignment and cofounded the Non-Aligned Movement of nations professing neutrality between the rival blocs of nations led by the U.S. and the U.S.S.R.
  • Recognising the People’s Republic of China, Nehru sought to establish warm and friendly relations with it despite annexation of Tibet in 1950. He hoped to act as an intermediary to bridge the gulf and tensions between the communist states and the Western bloc.

Criticism and legacy

  • Jawaharlal Nehru has criticised for refusing to accept Vallabh Bhai Patel as the Congress nominee to lead India’s government.
  • While the state Congress Working Committees, though not the central Working Committee, believed that Patel better suited for the office. There are prominent observers such as the industrialist  J.R.D Tata and contemporary historians suggest that. Patel would have been more successful then Nehru in tackling India’s problems.
  • Jawaharlal Nehru criticized for establishing an era of socialist policies that created a burgeoning, inefficient bureaucracy and curbed free enterprise. And productivity while failing to significantly eliminate poverty, shortages and poor living conditions.
  • Historians and Hindu nationalists also criticized Nehru for allegedly for the appeasing the Indian Muslim community at the expense of his own conviction in secularism.
  • Nehru’s neutral foreign policy criticized as hypocritical in lieu of his affinity for the Soviet Union and other socialist states.
  • He also blamed for ignoring the needs of India’s military services and failing to acknowledge the threat posed by the people’s republic of China and Pakistan.
  • A few of Nehru’s ministers had to resign on an allegation of corruption. His minister of Mines and oil K D Malaviya had to resign for accepting money from a private party in return for certain concessions. The sitting judge of the Supreme court, S.K. Das reviewed all the evidence. Including the account books of the businessman in which mention had been made of a payment to Malviya, and found two of the six charges against the Minister to be valid. Malviya resigned as a result.

Chinese miscalculation

Nehru assumed that as former colonies they shared a sense of solidarity, as expressed in the phrase “Hindi-Chini Bhai Bhai” (Indians and Chinese are brothers). He was dedicated to the ideals of brotherhood and solidarity among developing nations. While China was dedicated to a realist vision of itself as the hegemon of Asia. Nehru did not believe that one fellow Socialist country would attack another; and in any event, he felt secure behind the impregnable wall of ice that is the Himalayas. Both proved to be tragic miscalculations of China’s determination and military capabilities.

Jawaharlal Nehru decided to adopt the policy of moving his territory forward. And he refused to listen to any negotiations China had to offer. As Nehru declared the intention to throw every Chinese out of the disputed areas. China made a pre-emptive attack on the Indian front. India vanquished by the Chinese People’s Liberation Army in a bitter and cold battle in the Northeast. Although India repaired its relationship with the Chinese to some extent, the wounds of the Sino-Indian War have not been forgotten. Even today, over forty years later, few know the real story of what happened and what went wrong. The military debacle against China in 1962 thoroughly investigated in the Henderson-Brooks Report. Which successive Indian governments have refused to release.

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