The first decade of the 21st century has made it increasingly evident that security threats are unconstrained by borders. Each of India’s neighbor is undergoing a transition, giving rise to varied political experiences and experiments. The menace of terrorism and proliferation of arms, drugs and nuclear technology poses dangers that merit constant attention.
The continuing links of extremist and terrorist organizations with organs of the Pakistan State adds greater complexities and danger to the evolving situation confronting us. Strengthening of our security apparatus both internally and on our frontiers is, therefore, a national priority of the highest order.
China’s stated objectives, in its defense White Paper, of developing strategic missile and space-based assets. And of rapidly enhancing its blue-water navy to conduct operations in distant waters. as well as the systematic upgrading of infrastructure, reconnaissance, and surveillance, quick response and operational capabilities in the border areas, need to monitored carefully in the foreseeable future for the implications that it can have on the security and defense of India. Similarly, its military assistance and cooperation to Pakistan, including the possibility of enhancing connectivity with Pakistan. Through the territory illegally occupied by Pakistan in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, will also have direct military implications for India.
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Similarly, its military assistance and cooperation to Pakistan, including the possibility of enhancing connectivity with Pakistan. Through the territory illegally occupied by Pakistan in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, will also have direct military implications for India.
India’s credible minimum deterrence plays an important role in the regional security calculus. While maintaining a posture of minimum deterrence. India has announced a policy of no-first-use and a policy non-use against non-nuclear weapon states. India also continues to maintain a voluntary, unilateral moratorium on nuclear testing.
The need for enhanced maritime security should be seen in the backdrop of a long coastline facing the Arabian Sea on the West, the Bay of Bengal to the east and the vast Indian Ocean in the South. Increased economic activity along the coast and the growth of major towns has heightened this necessity. Over the recent years, maritime issues like the security of sea-lanes, piracy on the high seas, energy security, WMD, terrorism etc. have become important elements in India’s security. The Indian Navy has played an outstanding role in curbing piracy in parts of Indian Ocean. The Mumbai terror attacks have once again highlighted the importance of the maritime dimension in India’s security.
The principal task of the Ministry is to frame policy directions on defense and security related matters and communicate them for implementation to the Services Headquarters, Inter-Service Organisations, Production Establishments and Research & Development Organisations. It is required to ensure effective implementation of the Government’s policy directions and the execution of approved programmes within the allocated resources.
The principal functions of the Departments are as follows:
- The Department of Defence deals with the Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) and three Services and various Inter-Services Organisations. It is also responsible for the Defence Budget, establishment matters, defense policy, matters relating to Parliament, defense co-operation with foreign countries and coordination of all defense-related activities.
- The Department of Defence Production headed by a Secretary and deals with matters pertaining. It includes defense production, indigenization of imported stores, equipment and spares, planning and control of departmental production units of the Ordnance Factory Board and Defence Public Sector Undertakings (DPSUs).
- The Department of Defence Research and Development headed by a Secretary.Who is the Scientific Adviser to the Defence Minister. Its function is to advise the Government on scientific aspects of military equipment and logistics. The formulation of research, design and development plans for equipment required by the Services.
- The Department of Ex-Servicemen Welfare, headed by a Secretary, deals with all resettlement, welfare and pensionary matters of Ex-Servicemen. Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) was created on October 1, 2001, based on the recommendation of the Group of Ministers. Which was set up in 2000 post Kargil to review the Nation’s higher defense management. Since then, HQ IDS has been acting as the single point organization for inculcating jointness and synergy between the Armed Forces. By way of integrating policy, doctrine, warfighting, and procurement.
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The three Services Headquarters, viz., the Army Headquarters, the Naval Headquarters and the Air Headquarters function under the Chief of the Army Staff (COAS), the Chief of the Naval Staff (CNS) and the Chief of the Air Staff (CAS) respectively. The Inter-Service Organisations, under the Department of Defence, are responsible for carrying out tasks related to common needs of the three Services. Which are as medical care, public relations and personnel management of civilian staff in the Defence Headquarters.
Finance Division in the Ministry of Defence deals with all matters having a financial implication. This Division headed by Secretary (Defence Finance) and fully integrated with the Ministry of Defence and performs an advisory role.
The Indian Army stands vigil along the border – watchful, prepared for any sacrifice so that the people of the country may live in peace and with honor.
The infusion of high technology-based precision weaponry has enhanced the lethality of future warfare manifold. The spectrum of threat ranges from the nuclear to the conventional and the asymmetric, with terrorism emerging like a hydra-headed monster. The rigors of climate. The glacial heights and extreme cold, dense mountainous jungles and the heat and simoom of the deserts also need to be factored.
The Mechanised Forces constitute a significant and essential segment of Defence Forces with a formidable combat potential and operational worth. The effort to modernize Mechanised Forces continues, wherein additional quantities of ATGMs (anti-tank guided missiles) for BMP-2 and T-90 tank have been contracted.
The artillery is acquiring an array of guns, missiles and rocket systems with long ranges and superior firepower as also state-of-the-art surveillance systems.
The present situation in the region warrants state-of-the-art systems for the Infantry. This is being achieved through endeavors for better quality personal weapons, thermal imaging devices. And also mine protected vehicles and improved radio communication systems. A contract has signed for supply of Boot Anti Mines for use by Infantry. Bulletproof vehicles and shotguns procured for counterinsurgency operations.
The Indian Navy (IN), by virtue of its capability, strategic positioning and robust presence in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR), has been a catalyst for peace, tranquillity, and stability in the IOR. It has engaged other maritime nations that depend on the waters of the Indian Ocean for their trade and energy supplies. After that The Indian Navy ensured a measure of stability and tranquillity in the waters around our shores. To achieve its tasks Indian Navy is enhancing its capabilities, cooperation and interoperability with regional and extra-regional navies.
In order to augment the Indian Navy force level, a number of ships, submarines, survey vessels, auxiliary support vessels etc. are under construction in India and abroad. So The indigenous Aircraft carrier is also under construction at CSL, Kochi.
Indigenously built INS Kesari commissioned into the Indian Navy. Two Water Jet – Fast Attack Crafts Chetlal and Car Nicobar commissioned into the Indian Navy in recent time.
The Indian Coast Guard established as an independent service on August 19, 1978. It is as the fourth branch of the armed force of India, as per the Coast Guard Act, 1978. Since its inception, the Coast Guard has acquired a wide range of platforms both surface and airborne. This is to undertake the assigned tasks during peacetime and to supplement the efforts of Indian Navy during the war.
The command and control of the Coast Guard rest with the Director General of Indian Coast Guard at New Delhi. The Organisation has five Regional Headquarters i.e. Mumbai, Chennai, Gandhinagar, Kolkatta and Port Blair. The five Regional Headquarters exercise command and control in the waters adjoining the entire coastline of India, through 12 Coast Guard District Headquarters.
The duties of Coast Guard include:
(a) Ensuring the safety and protection of artificial islands, offshore terminals, installations and other structures and devices in Maritime Zones;
(b) Providing protection to fishermen, including assistance to them at sea while in distress;
(c) Taking such measures as are necessary to preserve and protect the maritime environment and to prevent and control marine pollution;
(d)Similarly Assisting the customs and other authorities in anti-smuggling operations;
(e) Enforcing the provision of such enactments as are for the time being in force in the maritime zones; and
(f) Such other matters, including measures for the safety of life and property at sea and collection of scientific data, as may be prescribed.
The Indian Air Force the air arm of the Indian armed forces. Its primary responsibility is to secure Indian airspace and to conduct Aerial warfare during a conflict.
The IAF had inducted state-of-the-art Su-30MKI aircraft in the operational squadron. Hawk AJT aircraft have also inducted. Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) being procured to significantly enhance the effectiveness of both Offensive and Defensive operations of the IAF.
The contract for MiG-29 mid-life upgrade and extension of total technical life signed with RAC MiG, Russia. IAF is also processing upgreadation of the Mirage-2000 and Jaguar aircraft and Mi-17 helicopters n order to optimise their utilization. To keep the DO-228 aircraft abreast with the latest technology, all the existing aircraft are upgraded with the latest avionics. In order to exploit the AN-32 aircraft further, TTL (total technical life) extension up to 40 years. And also re-equipment with the latest version of systems to meet the present ICAO standards for the entire AN-32 fleet undertaken.
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Indigenisation of spares required for the overhaul as a continuous process. Indigenisation of more than 80,000 lines of spares accomplished by the Base Repair Depots (BRDs) for various fleets of IAF. A long-term plan has prepared to replace all imported barriers with ADRDE. ADRDE (DRDO’s Aerial Delivery Research and Development Establishment) indigenized barriers. Indigenisation of maintenance and overhaul spares of imported Arrester Barriers is also in progress. Approximately 800 ines of spares have already indigenized.
To enhance electronic surveillance, a large number of ground-based radars inducted. Such Radars in different categories like Aerostat, Medium Power Radar (MPR), Low-Level Lightweight Radar (LLLWR), Low-Level Transportable Radar (LLTR), and Surveillance Radar Equipment (SRE) will greatly improve airspace management.
The IAF is acquiring state-of-the-art communication equipment across all spectrums. These include SATCOM, HF and V/UHF sets with associated encryption equipment to provide secure and reliable communications for all Command, Control, and Combat elements.
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