Communist Party India (CPI)
Origin and Brief History
In the Indian communist movements, there are different views on exactly when the Indian Communist Party (CPI) was founded.
The date maintained as the foundation day by Communist Party India (CPI) is 26th December 1925, at the first Kanpur party Conference.
But, the Communist Party of India (Marxist), which separated from the CPI, claims that the party was founded in 1920.
During the 1920s and beginning of 1930s, the party was organized, and in practice, there were several communist groups working with limited national coordination. After that, The British colonial authorities had banned all communist activity, which made the task of building a united party very difficult.
Additionally In the Cawnpore Bolshevik Conspiracy Case on 17th March 1924, M.N. Roy, S.A. Dange, Muzaffar Ahmed, Nalini Gupta, Shaukat Usmani, Singaravelu Chettiar, Ghulam Hussain and R.C. Sharma put on trial.
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When the Communist Party India (CPI) was underground, it directed its members to join the provincial Workers and Peasants Parties.
As of 1934, the main centers of activity of CPI were Bombay, Calcutta, and Punjab. Moreover, The party had also begun extending its activities to Madras. A group of Andhra and Tamil students, amongst them P. Sundarayya, recruited to the CPI.
In July 1942, British has legalized the Communist Party India (CPI). Communist strengthened their control over the All India Trade Union Congress, but at the same time, politically cornered for their opposition to the Quit India Movements.
Additionally, CPI contested the Provincial Legislative Assembly elections of 1946 of its own. It had candidates in 108 out of 1585 seats. It won 8 seats. In total, the CPI vote counted 6,66,723 which should be seen with the backdrop that 86% of the adult population of India lacked voting rights. So The Party had contested three seats in Bengal and won all of them.
Workers, Peasants, Underprivileged classes, trade unionist.
Key Persons of Communist Party India (CPI)
Founding Members – M.N. Roy, Evelyn Trent Roy, Abani Mukherji, Rosa Fitingof, Mohammad All (Ahmad Hasan), Muhammad Shafiq Siddiqui, Rafiq Ahmed of Bhopal and M.P.B.T. Acharya.
Sharipad Amrit Dange (Former Chairman of the Party), Chandra Rajeswara Rao, P K Vasudevan Nair, etc.
Secretary-General = S. Sudhakar Reddy
Main Ideological Thrust
political leanings are Leftist, and the ideology is Communism.
Major Electoral Achievements (Centre and States)
In the general elections in 1957, the CPI emerged as the largest opposition party.
Moreover, In 1957, the Communist Party India (CPI) won the state elections om Kerala under E.M.S. Namboordiripad. This was the first time that an opposition party won control over an India state.
During the period 1970-77, CPI allied with the Indian National Congress (INC). So In Kerala, they formed a government together with the INC, C.Achuths Menon as Chief Minister.
Current State Governments/Opposition
In West Bengal, it participates in the Left Front. It also participated in the state government in Manipur.
Similarly, In Kerala, the party is part of the Progressive Democratic Alliance. It involved in the Left Democratic Front in Maharastra.
Trivia of Communist Party India (CPI)
To date, Communist Party India (CPI) happens to be the only national political party from India to have contested all the general elections using the same electoral symbol.
In 1946 the party launched the Tebhaga movement in Bengal, a militant campaign against feudalism.
In 1957, when the CPI won the state elections in Kerala, it was the first time that an opposition party won control over an Indian State. So that CPI became First ever democratically elected Communist government in the world.