Achievements of India
Again, Indiagossip comes back with the new topic “Achievements of India After Independence”. We hope, This post Will improve Your General Knowledge and You Enjoy It. So that In “Achievements of India After Independence” Indiagossip has covered all the Achievement in the Twelve separate parts Completly.
India had made decent progress in several areas during the last 68 years.
- India has world-class scientists, engineers, soldiers, bureaucrats, farmers, journalists, politicians and doctors from world-class institutes like IIT’s and IIM’s.
- We are amongst the only 5 countries in the world to have the capability to design and send our own satellites and into space.
- Moreover, India has increased average life expectancy from 32 years to 65 years.
- We have 1.25 million miles of new roads; we have multiplied our steel production by over 50 times and cement production by almost 20 times.We also have constructed a bridge over the rivers of India
- IndianRailway is third largest ranked in all over the world.
- Green Revolution: Revolution was started in 1965.it has transformed India into a food-surplus economy from a food-deficit economy.
- White Revolution: India is the world leader in the milk production with the great support of Dr. Verghese Kurien.
- Telecom Revolution: No other technology has brought India–the urban and the rural–together as effectively as the 500-line EPABX designed and implemented by the Centre for Development of Telematics under the leadership of Sam Pitroda.
- Space Technology: ISRO(Indian Space Research Organization ) successfully got a spacecraft into Martian orbit on its maiden attempt.We have our own space objects.
- Atomic Energy: Dr. Homi Bhabha’s program has made possible successful utilization of nuclear energy in defense, power generation, medicine and allied areas.
- Software Revolution: N. Vittal’s Software Technology Program, along with the economic reforms of 1991, laid the foundation for this industry’s spectacular progress.
- But, a whopping 287 million are illiterate; 27 crore people in the India are still below the poverty line;
- In our country, 97 million people lack access to drinking water;
- 665 million people lack decent sanitation; 42% of children are below acceptable nutrition levels, and basic medicines are unavailable in 75% of villages.
Five-Year Plans of India
Indian Economy is based on the concept of planning. This is carried through her five-year plans, developed, executed and monitored by the Planning Commission. Though by the Narendra Modi led government, the planning commission had the Prime Minister as the ex-officio chairman of the Commission. Recently Modi government has created a new commission for it which is NITI. After that NITI is Known as “National Institution for Transforming India”.The Twelfth Plan is currently underway.
First Plan ( 1951-1956 )
Similarly, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru presented the first five-year plan to Parliament on December 8, 1951. Its total budget was 206.8 billion rupees ($23.6 billion in 1950 dollars exchange rate).
- Net domestic product went up by 15%.
- The monsoons cooperated, and harvests were good during this plan period, boosting exchange reserves and per capita income, which went up by 8%.
- Many irrigation projects were starting during this five-year plan. Dam’s and Cheak Dam’s like Bhakra-Nangal, Hirakud, and Mettur dam in South was the Best example of it.
- The World Health Organization (WHO) together with the Indian government addressed the health needs of children and reduced infant mortality in a big way.
- Five IIT (Indian Institute Of Technology) was started as major technical institutions. University Grant Commission was formed to take care of higher education needs from the funding point of view.
- Contracts were signed to start 5 steel production plants.
Second Plan ( 1956-1961 )
Moreover, The second five-year plan focused on the industry, especially heavy industry.
- Hydroelectric power projects were started in the second five-year plan. A notable one being Mahatma Gandhi Hydro Electric project at Sharavati, Koyna Dam project in present-day Maharastra.
- Five steel mills at Bhilai, Durgapur, and Jamshedpur were also started.
- Atomic Energy Commission was formed in 1957 with Homi J. Bhabha as the head of the AEC.
- Monsoons failed during these years and population explosion continued unabated.
- Pakistan and U.S.A. were allies under the CEATO agreement. The U.S. administration looked at India as a semi communistic, socialistic country. The Non-Aligned Movement of which India was the founding member was seen by the western powers with suspicion.
All in all these years were not very productive for the Indian economy.
Third Plan ( 1961-1966 )
- The planned stress was on agriculture, but due to the Sino-Indian War of 1962 focus shifted towards defense and development.
- In 1965-66, the Green Revolution was started for the advancement of Indian agriculture. So The wars lead to rising prices in India. The priority was thus shifted to price stabilization.
- India continued on with dam building. Hundreds of small and large dams were built during this five-year plan. Many cement and fertilizer plants were also built. So Punjab started producing an abundance of wheat.
- Many primary schools were started in rural areas. So In an effort of bringing democracy to the grassroots, Panchayat elections were started.
- State-Electricity Boards were formed.
- State Secondary education Boards came into existence.
- State Road transportation corporations were formed and local road building became the state responsibility.
Annual plan ( 1969-1974 )
- The annual plan was introduced to resolve immediate problems, but still, unemployment and poverty were major problems so this remained the focus of the plan.
- Indira Gandhi was the Prime Minister of India. She tried to control the capital market by nationalizing 14 of India’s major banks.
- During 1971 more than ten million illegal Bangladeshi immigrants poured into India as refugees running away from the murderous West Pakistani Army General Yahya Khan who was the military dictator of Pakistan. After that, The refugee crisis thus high jacked India’s fourth five-year plan India sent troops and liberated East Pakistan in fifteen days. So Funds earmarked for the industrial development had to be used for the war effort.
- India also tested (underground) a “peaceful” atomic weapon in 1974 as a reply to President Nixon’s crude gunboat diplomacy of bringing the U.S. 7th fleet into the Bay of Bengal as a threat to the Indian army operation in Bangladesh (then East Pakistan).
Fifth plan ( 1974-1979 )
- Stress was laid on employment, poverty removal, and justice.
- The plan also focused on self-reliance with respect to agricultural production and defense.
- During the fourth and fifth plans, stress was on rational minimum; but it was realized that poverty still plagued the nation. Hence, in 1978 the newly elected Morarji Desai government rejected the plan.
Sixth plan ( 1980-1985 )
- This plan marked the beginning of Economic Liberalization.
- Price Controls were eliminated and ration shops were closed.
- Family Planning was expanded in order to prevent overpopulation.
- The idea of a National Highway system was introduced for the first time and many roads were widened to accommodate the increase in road traffic.
Seventh plan ( 1985-1990 )
The Seventh Plan marked the comeback of the Indian National Congress Party into power. Stress was laid on improving the productivity level of industries by up gradation of technology.
The period between 1989-91: The 1989-91 years, was a time of political instability in India and hence no five-year plan was implemented. Between 1990 and 1992, there were only Annual Plans. So in 1991, India faced a crisis in Foreign Exchange (Forex) reserves, left with reserves of only about $1 billion (US). Thus, under pressure, the country took the risk of reforming the socialist economy. At that time Dr. Manmohan Singh and PV Narasimha Rao initiated the LPG reforms. So It was the beginning of privatization and liberalization in India.
Eighth plan ( 1992-1997 )
- Modernisation of industries was a major highlight of the Eighth Plan.
- Under this plan, the gradual opening of the Indian economy was undertaken to correct the burgeoning deficit and foreign debt.
- Meanwhile, India became a member of the World Trade Organization on 1 January 1995.
Ninth plan ( 1998-2002 )
- The target growth rate for the ninth plan was proposed to be 7%.
- India was able to achieve the target as a sound basis for rapid growth and already been laid in the country.
Tenth plan ( 2002-2007 )
- A growth rate of 7.7 % was achieved.
- 20 point program was introduced.
- Reduction in the gender gap in literacy and wage rate.
Eleventh Five-Year Plan ( 2007-2012 )
- A revival in agricultural growth which is the most important single factor affecting rural prosperity.
- Improved access to essential services in health and education especially for the poor.
- A special thrust on infrastructure development
- Environmental sustainability
- Good governance at all levels, Central, state, and local.
Twelfth Five-Year Plan ( 2012-2017 )
- Enhancing the Capacity for Growth Today, India can sustain a GDP growth of 8 percent a year. Increasing this to 9 or 10 percent will need more mobilization of investment resources; After better allocation of these resources through more efficient capital markets; higher investments in infrastructure through both public and PPP routes.
- Enhancing Skills and Faster Generation of Employment
- Bringing about sustainable development.
- Creating open, integrated, and well-regulated markets for land, labor, and capital and for goods and services.
- Decentralisation and Empowerment including greater and more informed participation of all citizens in decision-making, enforcing accountability, exercising their rights and entitlements.
- al and organizational innovation.
- Securing the Energy Future for India
- Accelerating development of Transport Infrastructure
- Rural Transformation and Sustained Growth of Agriculture
- Managing Urbanization
- Improved Access to Quality Education
- Better Preventive and Curative Health Care
Operation Flood / White Revolution
Operation Flood was the name of a rural development program started by India’s National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) in 1970. It is one of the largest programs of its kind.So The objective of the program was to create a nationwide milk grid.
Operation Flood has helped dairy farmers direct their own development, placing control of the resources they create in their own hands. So A National Milk Grid links milk producers throughout India with consumers in over 700 towns and cities, reducing seasonal. So regional price variations while ensuring that the producer gets a major share of the consumers’ rupee. After The bedrock of Operation Flood has been village milk producers’ cooperatives, which produce milk and provide inputs and services, making modern management and technology available to members.
After that, Operation Flood was implemented in three phases.
- Phase 1 ( 1970-1980 ) was financed by the sale of skimmed milk powder and butter oil gifted by the European Union (then the EEC) through the World Food Programme.
- NDDB planned the program and negotiated the details of EEC assistance.
- Moreover, During its first phase, Operation Flood linked 18 of India’s premier milk sheds with consumers in India’s four major metropolitan cities: Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta, and Chennai.
- Operation Flood’s Phase 2 ( 1981-1985 ) increased the milk sheds from 18 to 136
- By the end of 1985, a self-sustaining system of 43,000 village cooperatives covering 4.25 million milk producers had become a reality.
- Domestic milk powder production increased from 22,000 tons in the pre-project year to 140,000 tons by 1989.
- Phase 3 ( 1985-1996 )enabled dairy cooperatives to expand and strengthen the infrastructure required to produce and market increasing volumes of milk.
- Veterinary first-aid health care services, feed, and artificial insemination services for cooperative members were extended, along with intensified member education.
- Operation Flood’s Phase 3 consolidated India’s dairy cooperative movement, adding 30,000 new dairy cooperatives to the 42,000 existing societies organized during phase 3. Milksheds peaked to 173 in 1988-89 with the numbers of women members and Women’s Dairy Cooperative Societies increasing significantly.